此番的每每考试的地点,是由国师高等学园统一招考团队的高等学园统一招考商量读书人、阿拉伯语学科资深教师薛老师预测的。他估量,二〇一三年,乌克兰语的必考试之处仍有以下几个方面(本次为不完全刊出),请同学们复习备考时注意。

  定语从句是中学菲律宾语语法中的注重内容,也是高等高校统招考试中常调查的一个考试的场所。明白定语从句的用法,必需突破以下六道难题:

第十八讲 轻巧句、并列句和复合句

□东这两日报新闻报道工作者 米黄珍

  风度翩翩、选准关系代词和关系副词

风流倜傥。考试大纲供给

风流倜傥、定语从句

  在定语从句中,关系代词或提到副词都代表先行词在从句中担负一定的成分,假使该从句中缺少主语、表语、宾语或定语,就要用关系代词来连接从句;假诺从句中缺点和失误状语,就得用关系副词来连接从句。举个例子:

考纲须要考生能科学剖断句子的类型、解析句子结构、结合语境和句意选拔适宜的连天词语、决断主语和从句的不易语序、得当选拔主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

约束性定语从句,前边未有逗号,能够用that教导,从句中缺宾语时带领词能够轻巧。

  (1)I still remember the days which / that we spent together.

二。命题导向

非限定性定语从句,前有逗号,不能够用that教导,引导词必须要难。

  (2)I still remember the days when we worked together.

高等学园统一招考对简易句、并列句和复合句的考试重要总结:句子的构造、连词的选择、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习于旧贯用语和特有的句式应用。

二、关系代词

  二、了然仅用that 引导限定性定语从句的三种情景

三。复习要点

人 who/that who/whom/that whose物which/that which/that whose

  that
在限定性定语从句中既可指人又可指事或物。在下列情状下,只可以用that
来指引定语从句:

1.精简句、并列句和复合句

在意:1)先行词在从句中作宾语时,携带词能够总结(非约束性定语从句不得以);

  1. 先行词是all , much, few, little, everything, anything, nothing
等不定代词时。譬如:

① 句子连串三种分类法

2) 介词后不可能跟 that,who;

  Is there anything that you want to buy?

依据句子的用项,塞尔维亚共和国语的句子可分:陈诉句(分明、否定)、疑问句(平时、特殊、选取、反意)、祈使句、惊叹句等多样。

3)who在从

  2. 先行词被all, few, little, much, every, some, no等词修饰或被the
only, the very, the same, the last 等限制词修饰时。举例:

根据句子的布局可分:简单句并列句和复合句二种。

句中作宾语

  These are all the pictures that I have seen.

粗略句唯有多个主语或并列主语和二个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and,
but,
or,so等)或分行(;)把五个或五个以上的回顾句连在一同构成。复合句:含有二个或叁个之上从句的句子。复合句包括:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等二种。

时为不僧不俗用法。

  This is the very dictionary that is of great help.

② 并列排在一条线句的分类

既缺先行词,又缺辅导词的情形,如:

  3. 先行词既指人又指物时。举例:

相提并论句指把多少个风度翩翩律首要的语句连接在一块,句子之间常用and, not only…but
also…, neither…nor…, then等并称连词连接。

1)Is this factory ____ we visited last year?

  My father and his teacher talked a lot about the things and the
persons that they could remember.

代表接收涉及常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

2)Is this the factory ____we visited last year?

  4. 涉及代词在定语从句中作表语时。举例:

意味着转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

A. that B. which C. the one D.what

  Our school is not the one that it used to be.

意味着因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

深入分析:此类主题材料大家应先将其产生陈诉句。1)变后为:This factory is ____ we visited last year。再有其汉语意思“这几个工厂是我们二〇一八年浏览的那个”。可以知道1)中缺点和失误先行词,答案中只有项the one 那么些代词能够充任。故1)答案
C。

  5. 先行词被形容词最高端或序数词修饰时。比如:

2.状语从句:

2)变为陈说句后为:This is the factory ____ we visited last year。因而可见此句缺乏教导词。切先行词在从句中作宾语,由此答案为A或B。

  This is the best English film that I have ever seen.

(1)状语从句的归类

三、介词前置

  The first English novel that I read was A Tale of Two Cities.

状语从句平日修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由从属连词带领,从属连词在从句中不担当句子成分。根据状语从句所表达的不等含义和效果,可分为时间、地方、原因、条件、指标、结果、妥协、比较、形式等状语从句。

从句中与先行词搭配的介词可停放指导词前。

  6. 主句是who 或which 引导的出格问句时。比方:

(2)连接状语从句的词语

The athlete whom you talked to is a famous runner.= The athlete to whom you talked is a famous runner。

  Who is the girl that is standing under the tree?

时刻状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as,
hardly/ scarcely…when…, no sooner…than.。.黄金时代……就……,while, till,
until, since, once。名词词组the first time第一遍,last
time最终二次,every/each time每一遍,the next time后一次,the next
day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant
后生可畏……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

但含有介词的短语动词平日不拆开,介词仍放在动词的前边。

  Which is the machine that we used last Sunday?

案由状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

The old man whom the nurses are looking after is very well now。

  三、把握“介词+关系代词”结构中介词的选择

地方状语从句:where,wherever(无论这里)。

四、关系副词=介词+关系代词(which)

  介词的抉择与主句中先行词的选配密切相关。举个例子:

低头状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though,
although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however,
wherever, whenever等。

I still remember the day when I first came
to Beijing.= I still remember the day on which I first came to Beijing。

  That”s the reason for which he was late for school.

规格状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(假设;只要),in case (万意气风发);
on condition that(假使), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

such+先行词+as+定语从句

  This is the book on which I spent 8 yuan.

指标状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

the same+先行词 +as+定语从句

  注意:

比较状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……)
携带。

Eg:I like the same book as you do。

  1.
定语从句中谓语动词是带有介词的动词短语时,介词应放在动词之后,无法拆开放在关系代词前。比如:

艺术状语从句:as(正如;依照),as if/as though (好像)教导。

五、定语从句中的主谓豆蔻年华致

  This is the key which you are looking for.

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……甚至于)。

【顶级贵宾713线路】  生龙活虎、选准关系代词和关系副词,是由国师高等学园统一招考团队的高等学园统招考试切磋读书人、德文科目资深教授薛老师预测的。当指导词在从句中做主语时,从句中谓语动词的单复数由事先词而定。

  This is the baby whom you will look after.

(3)从句中的语序

one of+the+ [C]复 数+that/who+定语从句(从句中谓语动词用复数)

  2. 该组织中,关系代词指人时用whom,指物时用which.

复合句中平时使用陈说语序。可是,在下边包车型地铁三种景况下,状语从句多利用倒装语序:

the only one of +the+[C]复数+that/who+ 定语从句(从句中谓语动词用单数)

  四、弄清as 和which 指导的非限定性定语从句指代全体时的分别

①当连词as,
though连接妥胁状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词常常置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。比方:

Eg: He is one of the students that are in red。

  1. 职责上的界别:as
引导的非限定性定语从句的职位相比灵活,能够放在主句前,也足以放在主句后,还可插在主句的中等;而which
引导的非约束性定语从句只可以放在主句之后。举例:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as
John。

He is the only one of the students that is in red。

  As is known to us all, the earth turns around the sun.

Try as she might, Carol couldn’t get the door open。

薛先生说,做定语从句题指标中坚步骤:1.决断是还是不是为定语从句;2.寻找从句中所缺成分(主语、宾语、定语、表语、状语)进而决断是用关系代词依然事关副词;3.寻找先行词(看是人、物照旧是其它状语)注:缺主语:从句中谓语动词前从没有过主语。

  The earth, as is known to us all, turns around the sun.

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

缺宾语:1.从句中谓语动词为及物动词,后无宾语时;2.从句中介词后无宾语;3.从句中谓语动词为后可跟双宾语的动词,若其后独有三个宾语时,从句中可能缺宾语。(后可跟双宾语的动词有
show、give、ask、buy、tell等。)

  The earth turns around the sun, as is known to us all.

②在so/such…that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句采取部分倒装语序。比如:

不缺宾语的情事:1.被动语态中;2.主系表结构的句子里;3.谓语动词为不如物动词的语句里。

  The earth turns around the sun, which our parents once told us when
we were very young.

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new
branches elsewhere.

缺表语:从句中系动词后无表语时;

  2. 词义与交换上的界别:as
指点的非节制性定语从句与主句之间全数相比较紧凑的上下文联系,as
本身含有“正如”之意;而which
指点的非限定性定语从句与主句之间在逻辑意义上看似并列句,which
本身代表“那”或“那一点”之意。譬如:

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

缺定语:从句中的主语与事先词表所属关系时;

  Light travels faster than sound, as we all know.

③在hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no
sooner置于句首时,第叁个分句采取局地倒装语序,即把第贰个分句用陈诉语序。举例:

缺状语:当以上成分都不缺时。

  Jack came late for school, which made his teacher angry.

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

越多音信请访谈:高等学园统招考试频道 高等高校统一招考论坛 高等高校统一招考博客圈

  五、注意定语从句的主谓生机勃勃致性

④ however与形容词、副词一齐辅导迁就状语从句,句子选拔陈说语序。比方:

  关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语必需与先行词保持人称和数的平等。举例:

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my
attention on study this week。

  Tom is one of the boys who are from the USA.

⑤ 在the
+相比较级the+相比级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子如故接纳陈说语序。比如:Education
is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you
are。

  Tom is the only one of the boys who is from the USA.

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

  六、保持主句的完整性并防止从句成分的交汇

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态日常据守以下的规律:

  1.
在定语从句中,不管现身其余情状,主句的结构必得完全,即主句必需有主语和谓语,必不可少,不然,整个主旨复合句就不能够树立。试相比较:

①象征“同期”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while
等连接的时刻状语从句,主句和从句时态基本一致。举例:As time passed,
things seemed to get worse。

  (1)Is this factory _______ we visited last week?


表示“以往”意义的规范化、时间和退让状语从句中多用常常今后时,而主句用平常未来时,被喻为“主将从现”。举例:汤姆won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

  (2)Is this the factory _______ we visited last week?

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

  A. which B. where C. what D. the one


since指导的日子状语从句多用平日过去时,而饱含since从句的主句常常用后天变成时。譬如:I
haven’t met her since I left university。

  分析:

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than…中,第四个分句中过去产生时,第四个分句用常常过去时。比如:She
had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

  第风姿洒脱题缺乏表语,唯有填D项技术维持主句的完整性,而其他的选项均为忧愁项。

⑤ 在as if/though
引导的状语从句中,若是表示风流倜傥种与真情相反浮夸,从句多用常常过去时或过去达成时。比方:She
stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

  第二题主句本身完整,应填的涉及代词在从句中作visited
的宾语,故应选A项。

(5)状语从句的大致

  2.
从定语从句中,关系代词或关系副词已经取代先行词独立地或与相应的介词一齐在定语从句中当作了必然的成份,由此在定语从句中就不能够再出现与涉及代(副)词重叠的成份。举例:

当从句的主语与主句的主语相近有的时候候,被动结构的状语从句,可回顾与主句相符的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动组织的状语从句,可总结与主句相近的主语和助动词,保留连词+今后分词。比方:We
all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get
worse。

  错句:Is this the train that they took it last Sunday?

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

  深入分析:该题中that 已经取代先行词the train
在定语从句中担任及物动词took 的宾语,故重叠现身的宾语it必得删除。

(6)状语从句被用于重申组织中

  总的来说,突破了上述六道难点,定语从句中的难点便会化解。

状语从句作为被重申有个别用以重申组织时,豆蔻梢头律用It is/was
…that…,不可能用when替代that。句子用陈说语序。注意:当重申Not until
+时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再采纳倒装语序。比如:It was not until
the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  更多高等学园统一招考消息请访问:博客园高等学园统一招考频道
高等高校统一招考论坛
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  1. 名词性从句

  极其表达:由于各州点情形的反复调度与变化,新浪网所提供的保有考试音信仅供仿照效法,敬请考生以权威部门发布的正规音信为准。

(1)名词性从句分类:

依照在句中的效能,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句多种。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担负令分,有时可被回顾;表示“是还是不是”用whether,只有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if替代。Whether和if在从句中不担当成分。若是从句缺乏主语、表语、宾语、或定语等句子成分,用三回九转代词what,
whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose,
which;固然从句贫乏状语,用延续副词when, where, how, why。

是因为总是代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因此从句中谓语不用难点语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充作句子成分,而延续词whether
和if(是不是),在从句中不担当句子成分,只起接二连三作用。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

① 在偏下三种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”,
should可粗略。

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。不足为道的形容词有important, necessary, natural,
funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人诧异的)等。

(2) It is +名词+that…句型。屡见不鲜的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion,
proposal(建议,建议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。不足为道的动词有advise, order, propose,
request, suggest, demand, require等。

②在insist(坚定不移), urge (督促), order(命令), command(命令),
suggest(提议),advise(提议),recommend(建议,推荐),
request(恳求,要求),
demand(要求),require(供给,须要)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,
should可归纳。

③ 在蕴藏advice, order, demand, proposal(提出), requirement,
suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可粗略。

④在有的意味着好奇、意志力等情绪色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should
+have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。比方:

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  1. 定语从句

(1)定语从句的归类

定语从句分为约束性定语从句非限定性定语从句二种。约束性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限量效能,而非约束性定语从句对先行词起补充和说明表达效果与利益。日常限定性定语从句与先行词之间未有逗号,而非限定性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开分离。

(2)定语从句的涉及代词和涉及副词

定语从句平日由关系代词和涉及副词引导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose,
which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where,
why。关系代词和关系副词必须放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着接连几天来先行词和从句的法力,同期在从句中又担负句子成分。

(3)关系代词和涉嫌副词的用法:

①超过行词为人时用who
作主语,whom作宾语;②抢先行词为物或任何句申时用which,可作主语或宾语;③开始的一段时期词为人、物时用that
,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤
关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地方,在定语从句中作地方状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(4)约束性定语从句与非限定性定语从句的界别

①节制性定语从句:从句与主句关系紧凑,去掉从句,主句意义残破,以致不合逻辑。譬喻:I
was the only person in our office who was
invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完全)


非限定性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不细瞧,去掉定从句,意思依然平安无事。方式上用逗号隔离,无法that用指引。譬如:His
movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his
wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意趣仍完整)

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的多少个难点

①用that而不用 which的情事:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing,
much…;先行词有参天级修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very,
any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。比方:There is nothing that can
prevent him from doing it。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

② 用which而不用
that的景象:指点非限定性定语从句;指代整个主句的意趣;用于介词 的末尾+
关系代词。譬喻:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be
poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world,
there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an
example。

③ 关系代词as的用法

a. 当现行反革命词为 the same
+名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as辅导定语从句。比如:

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

b.
as可代表主句的剧情,指导的非节制性定语从句既可放在主句以前,也可放在主句之后。常用于下列句型:as
is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all
know, as I expect 等。比方: He got the first place again in this
mid-term examination, as we expected。

c. as 指点非限定性定语从句时与which的分歧

当主句和从句语义风姿洒脱致时,用as引导;反之,用which来引导非节制性定语从句;当非约束订语从句为否定意义时,常用which携带。比方:

He made a long speech, as we expected。

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

④关联代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数照旧用复数应由先行词决定。举个例子:

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the
morning。

⑤ 指导定语从句的涉及副词一时能够用“介词 + which”来代表。比方:

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was
founded。

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只好用which和whom,且不能够大约;若是介词在句末,关系代词可用which,
that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可回顾。举例:

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be
friendly。

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